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A mixture of antibodies produced by a variety of B-cell clones that have recognized the same antigen; although all of the antibodies react with the immunizing antigen, they differ from each other in amino acid sequence. It involves or arises from more than a single clone of cells. These antibodies are produced by inoculation of a suitable mammal, such as a mouse, rabbit or goat. An antigen is injected into the mammal. This induces the B-lymphocytes to produce IgG immunoglobulins specific for the antigen. This polyclonal IgG is purified from the mammal’s serum. Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. Antibodies are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.The main goal of antibody production in laboratory animals is to obtain high titer, high affinity antisera for use in experiments or diagnostic tests. Adjuvants are used to improve or enhance an immune response to antigens. Most of them provide for an injection site, antigen depot which allows for a slow release of antigen into draining lymph nodes.
Recombinant antibodies (rAbs) are synthetic antibodies that are created using antibody genes made in a laboratory or taken from human cells, completely eliminating animals from the antibody-production process. The techniques used for their synthesis rely on rapid cloning of immunoglobulin gene segments to create libraries of antibodies with slightly different amino acid sequences from which antibodies with desired specificities can be selected. These antibodies are translated from recombinant DNA and displayed on the surfaces of cells or phage particles. So far, various antibody display platforms have been developed such as yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, and ribosomes. rAbs can be used in all applications in which traditional mAbs are used such as western blotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and immunofluorescence. They have inherent advantages over their animal-derived counterparts as well. Recombinant antibody production gives researchers control over the state of the antigen to which they are making antibodies against. With traditional mAb technology researchers lose control after injecting the antigen into an animal. rAbs from antibody gene libraries are also amenable to high-throughput production which makes them attractive to the field of proteomics. Because they are derived from human or synthetic genes, they do not trigger the intense immunogenic reactions in patients that animal-derived antibodies do, making them ideal for clinical use.
Polyclonal Antibodies And Recombinant Antibodies
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